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Language Arts






Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency

1. Identify rhyming words with the same or different spelling patterns.
2. Use letter-sound knowledge and structural analysis to decode words.
3. Use knowledge of common word families (e.g., –ite or –ate) and complex word families (e.g., -ould, –ight) to sound out unfamiliar words.
4. Demonstrate a growing stock of sight words.
5. Read text using fluid and automatic decoding skills.
6. Read passages fluently with changes in tone, voice, timing and expression to demonstrate meaningful comprehension.

Acquisition of Vocabulary
1. Determine the meaning of unknown words using a variety of context clues, including word, sentence and paragraph clues.
2. Use context clues to determine the meaning of homophones, homonyms and homographs.
3. Apply the meaning of the terms synonyms and antonyms.
4. Read accurately high-frequency sight words.
5. Apply knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to determine their meanings.
6. Use knowledge of contractions and common abbreviations to identify whole words.
7. Apply knowledge of prefixes, including un-, re-, pre- and suffixes, including -er, -est, -ful and -less to determine meaning of words.
8. Decode and determine the meaning of words by using knowledge of root words and their various inflections.
9. Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such   as definitional footnotes or sidebars.

Reading Process: Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies
1. Establish a purpose for reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions or to be entertained).
2. Predict content, events and outcomes by using chapter titles, section headers, illustrations and story topics, and support those predictions with examples from the text.
3. Compare and contrast information between texts and across subject areas.
4. Summarize texts, sequencing information accurately and include main ideas and details as appropriate.
5. Make inferences regarding events and possible outcomes from information in text.
6. Create and use graphic organizers, such as Venn diagrams and webs, to demonstrate comprehension.
7. Answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic  and visual media.
8. Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on or looking back.
9. Use criteria to choose independent reading materials (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres or recommendations   from others).
10. Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task). 

Reading Applications: Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text
1. Use the table of contents, chapter headings, glossary, index, captions and illustrations to locate information and comprehend texts.
2. List questions about essential elements (e.g., why, who, where, what, when and how) from informational text and identify answers.
3. Identify and list the important central ideas and supporting details of informational text.
4. Draw conclusions from information in maps, charts, graphs and diagrams.
5. Analyze a set of directions for proper sequencing, clarity and completeness.

Reading Applications: Literary Text
1. Recognize and describe similarities and differences of plot across literary works.
2. Use concrete details from the text to describe characters and setting.
3. Retell the plot sequence.
4. Identify and explain the defining characteristics of literary forms and genres, including fairy tales, folk tales, poetry, fiction and non-fiction.
5. Explain how an author’s choice of words appeals to the senses.
6. Identify stated and implied themes.
7. Describe methods authors use to influence readers’ feelings and attitudes (e.g., appeal of characters in a picture book; use of figurative language).

Writing Processes
1. Generate writing ideas through discussions with others and from printed material.
2. Develop a clear main idea for writing.
3. Develop a purpose and audience for writing.
4. Use organizational strategies (e.g., brainstorming, lists, webs and Venn diagrams) to plan writing.
5. Organize writing by providing a simple introduction, body and a clear sense of closure.
6. Use a wide range of simple, compound and complex sentences.
7. Create paragraphs with topic sentences and supporting sentences that are marked by indentation and are linked by transitional words and phrases.

Writing Applications
1. Write stories that sequence events and include descriptive details and vivid language to develop characters, setting and plot.
2. Write responses to novels, stories and poems that demonstrate an understanding of the text and support judgments with specific references to the text.
3. Write formal and informal letters (e.g., thank you notes, letters of request) that include relevant information and date, proper salutation, body, closing and signature.
4. Write informational reports that include the main ideas and significant details from the text.
5. Produce informal writings (e.g., messages, journals, notes and poems) for various purposes.

Writing Conventions
1. Write legibly in cursive, spacing letters, words and sentences appropriately.
2. Spell multi-syllabic words correctly.
3. Spell all familiar high-frequency words, words with short vowels and common endings correctly.
4. Spell contractions, compounds and homonyms (e.g., hair and hare) correctly.
5. Use correct spelling of words with common suffixes such as –ion, -ment and -ly.
6. Follow common spelling generalizations (e.g., consonant doubling, dropping e and changing y to i).
7. Use resources to check spelling (e.g., a dictionary, spell check).
8. Use end punctuation marks correctly.
9. Use quotation marks around dialogue, commas in a series and apostrophes in contractions and possessives.
10. Use correct capitalization.
11. Use nouns, verbs and adjectives correctly.
12. Use subjects and verbs that are in agreement.
13. Use irregular plural nouns.
14. Use nouns and pronouns that are in agreement.
15. Use past, present and future verb tenses.
16. Use possessive nouns and pronouns.
17. Use conjunctions.

1. Choose a topic for research from a list of questions, assigned topic or personal area of interest.
2. Utilize appropriate searching techniques to gather information from a variety of locations (e.g., classroom, school library, public library or community resources).
3. Acquire information from multiple sources (e.g., books, magazines, videotapes, CD-ROMs, Web sites) and collect data (e.g., interviews,
experiments, observations
or surveys) about the topic.
4. Identify important information found in the sources and summarize the important findings.
5. Sort relevant information into categories about the topic.
6. Understand the importance of citing sources.
7. Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information gathered.

Communication: Oral and Visual
1. Ask questions for clarification and explanation, and respond to others’ ideas.
2. Identify the main idea, supporting details and purpose of oral presentations and visual media.
3. Identify the difference between facts and opinions in presentations and visual media.
4. Demonstrate an understanding of the rules of the English language.
5. Select language appropriate to purpose and audience.
6. Use clear diction and tone, and adjust volume and tempo to stress important ideas.
7. Adjust speaking content according to the needs of the audience.
8. Deliver informational presentations that:
      a. present events or ideas in logical sequence and
maintain a clear focus;
      b. demonstrate an understanding of the topic;
      c. include relevant facts and details from multiple sources to develop topic;
      d. organize information, including a clear introduction, body and conclusion
      e. use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams,
charts, illustrations) and available           
          technology; and

         f. identify sources.
9. Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations recalling an event or personal experience that convey relevant information and descriptive details